SKIN TYPES - Caring for specific skin types and dealing with common skin problems

We are born with minds that are programmed to want to be beautiful. Looking great heads every girl’s wish list. Even when she’s still a toddler waddling around in pink polka-dotted bloomers, a girl cannot but stop and look at herself in a mirror. It is this fascination with beauty and good looks that the beauty industry has caught on to, and, after years of collective mind reading combined with steady R&D work, has begun to offer beauty aids that are almost magical in their ability to enhance and preserve. We have indeed come a long way from ass’s milk and rose water. Today, the beauty industry is perfectly capable of serving up the closest thing to the elixir of eternal youth. Jars, tubes, bottles, capsules of oil and many are present from which magic emerges in many guises. But all of these are the result of dogged research and arduous soul searching by people committed to making every woman’s wish come true.

For knowing and inventing beauty, research and knowledge is the two keywords which must be looked into. The very first step in beautifying yourself is to know about your skin. This will bring immense knowledge about your own skin. Isn’t it really wonderful to study about your own skin? Such studies would help you choose the right product for your skin and also make you more alert on the different ways of caring and pampering your skin. After gathering information on different skin types you can easily categorize your skin to one among those. With this you will become more aware of the various methods in skin care.

Earlier the skin was not classified into various categories and all was considered to be similar. But now it is not the same as there are different skin types and different people have varying skin types and treatments are to be done according to that. Today after a lot of research it has been found out that beauty is skin deep and it largely depends on the quality of the skin. This quality is that which determines age and also make us look younger ever after. From the nineties it has been found out that the essential part of the woman’s daily routine and self confidence is all in the beauty and skin care. Finding the special trades is known to be very important. In this analyzing your own skin type is known to be the most important step.
If you have ever felt that beauty is unattainable- a lucky perk other women are blessed with at birth, take a deep breath and relax. You are not alone-and you also happen to be in for a very pleasant surprise. Just take a look around, and you will quickly see that there is no surefire formula for looking great. For every perfectly symmetrical face on the movie screen, there’s a dazzling, original smile, an explosion of curly hair and many more. For all this the primary step is to know your skin type and you skin. This will surely reveal a lot of secrets and would help you knowing your skin and also some better ways to improve its look.

Skin is the blank canvas of beauty before you do anything else makes sure it is as healthy and clear as possible. The right skin care ingredients can your complexion from dull to luminous, rough to smooth, blemished to practically flawless. But the important step to take before selecting the best products for your individual needs is to determine your skin type. When roughly talked about, there are almost five basic types of skin.

With the increasing cleansers, creams, scrubs and serums crowding the store shelves every day, putting together an effective skin care routine can be, depending on your view point, an indulgent adventure or an overwhelming task. With a little preparation, you can simplify the process. Begin by determining your skin type and targeting your needs. Are you concerned with moisturizing dry patches or preventing breakouts? Softening lines or making skin glow? Next, familiarize yourself with the most potent ingredients available today. Then, bone up on the myriad cosmetic procedures available in dermatologist offices, and the safest, smartest ways to get good results.


There are different skin types which are classified into five division’s namely dry skin, normal skin, oily skin, combination skin and sensitive skin. There is a common and easy step to determine your skin type so that it becomes possible to identify it and to take further necessary steps. For this all you need is a piece of tissue to wipe which is clean. When you wake up in the early morning it is suggested that you wipe your face with the clean tissue that you have and observe it. For those having normal skin, the oil does not come on the paper and your face does not feel tight or flaky. If your skin is oily then there would be oil on the tissue which is seen as transparent spots. The oil comes out usually from the nose, forehead and cheek parts. On the other hand if there is oil only in the center part then it is a combination skin. In such people oil comes off from the forehead and nose which is considered to be the oiliest part of the skin, but does not come from the cheeks. For those who have dry or normal skin they will have no oil in the tissue. After wiping if the skin is left too tight or stretched with a feeling or dryness as well as parched then it is sure to be dry skin. It is sure to be normal skin if it is supple, lively, vibrant and elastic. Thus it is simple test to determine your skin type. People having sensitive skin can point out it when the skin tends to be tight and blotchy and reacts to new skin-care products by becoming red, inflamed or even itchy. There are even online skin tests which are now available in many tests. For knowing the strategies of the skin it is very important to identify your skin type.


The softer and more relevant skin is the normal skin which is clear, pimple free, soft, smooth and without any greasy or flaky areas. The skin is neither dry nor greasy and is considered to be the fine and supple surface. The inner health of the skin is shown out which is due to the circulation as well as with outstanding health.

There are women who might develop pimples just before the menstruation. This is due to some kind of hormonal activity taking place in the body that results in making the sebaceous glands over active. But acne could never be considered as a problem for those having normal skin. For maintaining the beauty of the skin special care is always needed, otherwise it might lead to wrinkling and aging.

There are several things to be performed to keep your skin healthy and young always. These are known to be simple procedures that would help you make it silky smooth and glowing.

  1. Make it a habit to clean the skin twice daily using mild baby soap and water and along with a mild toner like rose water.
  2. Moisturizer could be applied to the face every night before sleep to balance the moisture content in the skin. Preferably home made moisturizers or even night creams are chosen.
  3. Cleansing is said to be very important for every skin type and for this mild cleanser could be opted for. This keeps the pores tight and an astringent could be used to remove any traces of cleanser present on the skin. While using astringent make sure that these are alcohol free or having low astringent content.
  4. While using hair dryers always make sure to keep the face away from the heat.
  5. For retaining surface moisture, mild, oil-based moisturizer under makeup is preferred.
  6. Sunscreen is very important these days as it prevents any effects of drying and aging.
  7. A nondrying mask could be always used to stimulate the blood circulation and also to maintain the smoothness of the surface of the skin. This procedure could be adopted at least once in every two weeks.

Applying make up on this type of skin lasts long and also looks smooth. The most important thing to be cared for is the premature ageing experienced under the eyes. This is because there is lack of moisture in this area due to the absence of the sebaceous activity.


  1. Facial massaging is said to be the topmost choice. It provides various advantages like toning and tightening the muscles of the face. The circulation is also improved with the use of natural skincare blends. It keeps your skin healthy, nourished and even young.
  2. Lots of water should be drunk along with eating fruits and vegetables. Another important things needed are exercise and fresh air to breath.
  3. Applying sunscreen would protect a lot from the harmful effects of the sun. This would also prevent premature ageing.
  4. There are a lot of essential oils which could come in use. It includes a blend of lavender, jasmine and geranium which are mixed into the base oil. Jasmine has its property of balancing the skin, lavender regenerates, heals and stimulated the prevention of scarring and geranium is known for its balancing properties and even aids circulation.
  5. The base oil used could be jojoba oil, almond oil and carrot oil. Other essential oils recommended for normal skin are fennel, lavender, rose, chamomile, sandalwood, lemon, patchouli and geranium.

An added tip is to use honey beneath the mask treatments which is considered to be very important for normal skin. Honey is the best ingredient which could regulate the moisture of the skin. It is also good for dry as well as sensitive skin. Aromatherapy could sometimes cause irritation and to prevent this it is always recommended to use 50 drops of essential oil in 100ml of the carrier oil. For sensitive skin it is always preferred to use lemongrass and tea tree which could only be diluted 1-2%.


Dry skin is familiar with many of them. It has to be taken care as it is more prominent and prone to ageing and other serious problems. Dry skin is fine-pored skin which looks dull. It has a sallow tone and also is easily irritated. Those having dry skin will be surely experiencing from flawlessness, taut and flaky feeling and also hardly breaks into spots. This skin type feels more comfortable with night creams, moisturizers and voila.

People having dry skin have a thin and papery texture. This is because of the pores it has as they are very fine. The appearance of flaky patches is very common in many of them by the midday. After each wash the skin feels very tight as it is very small for the face.

It is always the best to use creamy cleanser for melting the dirt away. Let it stay for sometime in the skin before wiping it away. Then gently wipe it with cotton wool. For cleaning the face splash cold water and the skin feels refreshed. Next use a thick creamy moisturizer to seal the moisture content.


The skin becomes worse in the winter season as it starts to crack and also leaves moisture. This is because the skin has more moisture in the upper levels and very little in the lower levels. Therefore it is both dry as it lacks oils and even dehydrated as it lacks water. It is even vulnerable to climatic and weather changes and also produce wrinkles easily if it is not cared for. Any exposure to harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun or air conditioning would lead to increased loss of moisture. Mostly it becomes worse when you move from the sun directly into an air conditioned room or even while moving out from the air conditioned room to the sun.

The skin’s dry condition is aggravated by the use of soap, detergents and toners. So a gentle approach which boosts the skin’s moisture levels and makes it soft and supple which is considered to be a must.

Day care for the dry skin calls for the use of a creamy moisturizer. If the moisturizer has a high Sun Protection Factor (SPF) then it considered to be the best. An SPF indicates the number of times the skin is saved from the sun. So if your skin normally burns in five minutes, a 30 SPF sunscreen will let it burn only 30 X five minutes which is equal 150 minutes. In India it is considered that an SPF of about 30 is a must for any skin type.

Even though a thick moisturizer is excellent for the dry skin, it should also be taken care that the thickness should be to the extreme so that it would irritate the skin. Before the application of make up, the moisturizer should be given a few minutes to sink into the skin deeply.

Special care should be given especially at night for the dry skin. Removal of make up is very important. First the eye make up has to be removed with a cream based eye make-up remover. This helps to soothe dryness in the delicate eye area. This has to be followed by a rich facial cleanser. Leave the cleanser on for few minutes before wiping it off, to help it remove the make-up and dirt thoroughly. Next the face has to be washed well with a gently face wash. Always remember to use glycerin soap or face wash which will not strip your skin of its natural oils.

Ultimately, a thick night cream should be applied to seal in the moisture and provide oils for the upper layers of the skin. The night cream has to be left on the whole night. However, for those who are uncomfortable with the idea of leaving it on, it can be washed off with lukewarm water after at least two hours. By this time it would have done its work.

Another important addition for the dry skin is fish oil and vitamin E capsules that go a long way for supplementing the action.


There are certain things which are to be understood about dry skin. It is very important for the care and concern for your skin.

  1. In the winter season, the dry skin could become intense. This is because the heating systems present could take away the moisture present in the skin. Thus response is by drying the skin even more adversely. For getting back the moisture it is always advised to open a window and let the moisture come in. Humidifiers are also those which could be considered.
  2. Sun rays acts as a harmful agent to the skin and especially the dry skin. Therefore, the skin should get enough protection from such elements which would adversely affect the skin. For this buy products having sun blocks for sun protection. Apart from sun, wind also plays a major role in proving itself harmful to the skin.
  3. Always depend on water as it could retain the moisture content within the skin. Coffee could really take away the moisture from the skin, thus leaving it dehydrated.
  4. Bubble bathing for long hours is not friendly to the dry skin as it could worsen the situation even more. But instead of the bubble baths, using bath oils is a good choice.
  5. There are certain areas on which could cause dreadful effects if it becomes excessively dry. One such part is the area above the finger nails known as the cuticles. Therefore dryness in this area would result in hangnails and it actually shows up when lack of moisture occurs. All these parts have to be pampered and should not be let dry as lotions have to be applied often.

DOs AND DON’Ts for Dry Skin


  1. Using moisturizer during the day is very helpful.
  2. Always use a sunscreen of SPF over 30.
  3. Eat a diet rich in fruits, yoghurt and vegetables, whole grain cereal and drink plenty of water which is about eight glasses per day.
  4. Try using rich night creams for repair of the skin.
  5. Take special care of the delicate skin around the eyes.


  1. Expose the skin to too much sunlight.
  2. Drag the skin while applying or removing make-up, since dry skin tends to wrinkle faster.


It is a proven fact that there are no permanent remedies for dry skin. But with certain remedies and softeners it could be softened and moisturized too. For this more reliable are the lotions and creams which are available in the market widely. For eliminating the problem of dryness temporarily a mild soap or a cleansing body lotion is very useful. This option could sometimes be a failure if the skin has the genetic problem or if it is exceptionally dry. The entire process could be done at home itself and there is no need to spend lot on beauty parlors and costly cosmetic products. There are different ways through which the dry skin could be pampered.

  1. Applying face pack made of fruits which are rich in vitamins and water could do a great deal on the dry skin. There are different fruits used for this purpose, they include peach, banana and papaya.
  2. For the real glowing effect mashed avocado could be used.
  3. Following these face packs should be a mild lotion or even a moisturizer. This would gain back the moisture produced by the application of the face pack. In such cases, oil based moisturizers are preferred.
  4. Usage of the moisturizer should be a peculiar motion and it should be applied in an upward circular motion each every time you use it.
  5. For being fresh in the mornings it is advised to use night creams which contain alpha hydroxyl acids in them. Night creams are considered to be oilier than the regular moisturizers used and it works longer at the night hours.
  6. For the inner glow of skin different nutrients including Vitamin A, Vitamin B and Vitamin E are to be taken in the diet.
  7. The moisture in the skin could be regained by eating leafy vegetables.
  8. The amount of water taken in should be more which helps the body to have enough fluids. In the same way, fruit juices also play an important role in softening up the skin.
  9. Several home remedies such as face packs consisting of rose water, almond oil, honey, olive oil and even beaten curd could be use to make the skin smarter.
  10. Daily massage or a facial sauna could create real magic in the skin.
  11. Always use mild or a fragrance free soap for the charming look.
  12. Application of aloe vera gel, cod liver oil or vitamin E oil is very effective.
  13. Blend two tablespoon honey with two tablespoon milk to make a paste. Apply over the face as well as the throat and let it remain for ten minutes. Wash it off with warm water.
  14. Make a paste out of mashed apricot and warm olive oil. Apply over the face and leave for about ten minutes and then wash with water.
  15. After a shower it is always advised to use baby oil or Vaseline all over for that greasy like feeling.
  16. For dreadfully dry skin, use evening prim rose oil by taking about three-four milligrams per day. It takes about two weeks to show the end result.
  17. Apply almond oil all over the body and use it daily. Massage it gently till it gets absorbed completely into the skin. Thus the skin becomes softer and dryness would certainly disappear.
  18. Massage almond oil around the eyes before going to bed.
  19. Apply almond oil to the elbows and knees daily and you can see the results within two weeks.


If your skin is shiny and greasy and prone to break out into acne quite often and even comfortable with frequent soap-water washes, then it is sure that you have oily skin. Large pores are the important feature of oily skin. After each wash the skin feels refreshed and by the midday it even looks shiny. But the texture of the skin seems to be coarse and thick too. The most important feature about oily skin is that it often breaks out into spots.

Oliy Skin Care

This is kind of skin is oil-rich and prone to pimples, spots and even blackheads. The oil balance in this skin can go awry at times because of various reasons, related to stress, heredity factors or hormonal imbalance. Oily skin usually shows up at puberty when the oil level shoots up due to hormonal changes. Initially, the acne on this kind of skin can be treated as ‘adolescent acne’, but if it persists decades after adolescence, then its time to try and restore the skin’s hydrolipidic (water and oil) balance.

For this type of skin, the conservative home treatment of soap and water washes several times a day goes a long way in keeping acne in check.  This is sure to remove the dirt and oil which is supposed to be clogging in the large pores. But these are removed without stripping away the moisture from the skin. Anti-bacterial, antiseptic neem soap, with the right pH balance, is good for this kind of skin. Even after wiping your make-up off with cleanser, a soap and water wash is a must. This is to clean the pores thoroughly and open them. This procedure is followed by the application of astringent. For this the clean cotton should be taken and the astringent lotion is to be applied and just sweep the akin with it to feel the difference. You will surely feel refreshed and cooled up. Instead of soap washes a face wash for oily skin could be used so that the skin does not get oilier and it would become clean.

However the soap-water washes give only temporary relief as they clean, but don’t reach right inside the follicles from where the oil is waiting to gush out. So the next step would be the use of clay/mud pack once or twice a week.

For the pack for oily skin, make a paste of Fuller’s earth and kaolin or witch hazel. Contrary to popular belief, using rose water does not really help; you can use ordinary water for as good results. Apply the paste on the face, wait till it dries completely and then wash off.

The problem with oily skin is that it often gets dehydrated; moisture gets removed from it, with the constant efforts at removing oil. Frequent soap and water washes dehydrate the skin and, with oily skin, you need to work at restoring moisture to the skin. Many people would think the other way round as not to use any kind of moisturizer, but it is very important and always choose a light and watery fluid which is considered to be sufficient for the skin.  Oil-free moisturizers help restore the balance. Massage well into your face and let it absorb well, later use a tissue paper to remove the excess moisturizer thus preventing shine. Many cleansers claim to be oil-free, but usually have some traces of oil in them because finally, it’s oil that removes make-up. So avoid this product completely but could damage your skin.

Vitamin A capsules help control oil production to a certain extent. It is important for those with this skin type to have an oil-free diet with lots of vegetables and water and to move their bowels regularly. A clean gut leads to a clearer skin.

The medical treatment for oily skin consists of systemic and topical medicines and multi-vitamins with minerals specific to this skin type. Recent studied show that the natural product, evening primrose oil is proved to have beneficial effects of the skin. Daily about 500mg to 1000mg of this oil could be used. It is known to improve the softness of the skin and helps in retaining the moisture content even while clearing it of acne.


  1. Steaming the face is proved to be a clinical treatment for oily skin.
  2. Black heads are to be removed after steaming as it loosens the blockages and also open the pores. Thus the dirt does not clog to result in forming pimples.
  3. Then the skin has to be moistened with medicated gel.
  4. The high frequency skin treatment is to be done to dry the skin and it also controls and kills the existing bacteria.
  5. After this treatment a suitable face mask has to be applied.
  6. If the skin still feels greasy, a degreasing procedure is adopted.
  7. Cleanse the skin just two or three times daily. Washing more than twice or thrice will only result in stripping the skin off the oils and it would stimulate the oil glands to replace it.

ACNE - problem for people having oily skin

Acne is known to be a major problem which is enquired by most of them having oily skin. Acne could be defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder that occurs in the adolescent as well as the adult.

The acne prone skin is thin and coarse having flared pores. Acne is caused by external factors such as lack of personal hygiene, pressure or friction through restrictive clothing and comedogenic creams and cosmetics. Internal factors include genetic vulnerability, hormonal stress, a poor diet and certain drugs.

Acne Treatment

  1. Avoiding fried and junk foods such as whole milk, butter, cream, cheese, ice cream, chocolate, rich salad dressing, cocoa, nuts, sweets and fatty meats. It is considered to be a life long diet.
  2. Eat foods rich in water, fresh fruits, lean meats, chicken, cereals, whole grains, boiled fish and complex carbohydrates. This will help in regulating the bowel movements.
  3. Include Vitamin A and zinc capsules as a diet supplement.
  4. The spots could be hidden by make up which covers and camouflages them.

DO’s AND DON’Ts for Oily Skin


  1. Make sure that the hands are clean when you touch your face. Special care has to be taken when touching the spotty areas.
  2. Always use an oil-free or water based product for cleansing, toning and moisturizing.
  3. Use the face packs on regular basis.
  4. Exercise regularly.
  5. Try to reduce stress in your life.
  6. Stick to a diet rich in vegetables, salads and whole grains.


  1. Touch or squeeze spots.
  2. Ever go to bed with make-up on.


There are several home remedies known for the oily skin. The most important fact is to clean the face as often as possible so that the excess oil which is present is just left out and is wiped. Before going to bed always make it a habit to clean your face. For this you can use excellent quality cleansing milk or even unboiled milk. Limit the intake of greasy foods and also include almost eight glasses of water per day. For making your skin clear and clean, steaming is the chosen option as it opens up the pores and face-pack is followed after steaming. This would surely enhance the appearance. There are several home remedies which are known to act as face packs.

  1. Apply tomato puree to the skin.
  2. Make paste out of half teaspoon honey and egg white and one teaspoon lemon juice. To this paste add either brewer’s yeast or fuller’s earth powder. Apply over the face and wash it with water after twenty minutes.
  3. Prepare a batter of one egg white, one teaspoon camphor, one heaping tablespoon of skim milk powder and a drop of essential oil of mint. Keep this mixture aside. Primarily apply a coat of odorless castor oil to the skin and then it has to be followed by a thick layer of the egg white mask. Remain the same for fifteen minutes and then wash it with warm water and then rinse it with apple cider vinegar and water solution or even with hazel.
  4. Apply the mixture of one tablespoon of yoghurt to fuller’s earth. Yoghurt is considered to be of great use as it softens the skin and also help to regain the natural acid mantle.
  5. Make a paste out of lemon juice and little milk to oatmeal. Apply it and keep for twenty minutes and wash it with water. But see to it that there are no eruptions as lemon juice could produce some irritation.
  6. For the oily skin, the best is to use clay mask.
  7. Papaya is considered to be a boon for the oily skin as the application of the pulp over the skin is proved to have wonderful effects on the skin. It is considered to have wonderful properties of cleansing action, softening dead skin cells and their removal.


If your skin feels taut and flaky on the cheeks but oily on the T-zone, forehead, nose and chin, you have what is known as combination skin. It is known to be present with little patches and also along with very few oily patches as it is a combination of both. Usually the dryness is seen on the cheeks and the oily part to be on the T-zone or it is called the Temple zone. After each wash some areas would be smooth where as the other would be dry and rough. As the T-zone is smooth, it is prone to breaking of spots and it also becomes shiny by the midday. It is also estimated that most of the women have this kind of skin. If your chin and nose are oily and the forehead is known to be drier, then it is defined as normal-to-combination skin type.


The development of combination skin type happens with time. It usually develops from the skins which were considered to be oily during the puberty. The surging hormones are those which control the sebum in the teen age. When become twenty years the oily skin which is present usually in the lower half of the face namely, chins and jaw line is caused due to the hormonal factors such as the pill, stress and menstruation. As the oiliness and the dryness in the combination skin changes with age, it is highly recommended to asses and determines the skin type often so that you get to know about the changing skin type. It is a proven fact the combination skin changes with time, age, seasons, hormonal fluctuations and even the environment.

Combination Skin Treatment

The treatment known for this type of skin has to be judicious mix of treatments for dry and oily skins. Care should be taken to see that the oily zone remains dry, while the cheeks are moisturized regularly.

Each day at the start use a foaming face wash to clean the face. This is very necessary as the oily areas would be kept clean and thus preventing the emergence of blackheads. On the other hand, in the evening use a cream cleanser to sooth and smoothen the dry areas. This is what is essential to keep a balance between both the extremities such as extreme dryness and oiliness. It is pretty difficult to manage a combination skin but it has to be done to make your skin feel young always. After the cleaning process, always go for a strong astringent for the oily areas and a light and mild skin freshener for the dry areas. People might think that this is something beyond their expectation and affording, but the truth is that it is economical as the amount required from each of the cosmetics is very little and is affordable too. Finally use moisturizer entirely over the face, but make sure that you specify the dry areas and concentrate on those well. Various nutrients that are considered to be necessary for skin healing and enhancing collagen repair are known to be Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, zinc and selenium which are known to be essential antioxidants. For treating fine lines, wrinkles it is always the best to administer the essential fatty acids known as EFAs which could have a positive and proven effect on the skin. This is so because it acts as a barrier which helps in preventing moisture loss as it acts as a barrier which helps in combating dryness.


Caring for combination skin type is quite difficult as the balance between the two skin types has to be maintained. There are several ways to combat this problem and bring a balance between the two.

  1. Always make use of milder cleanser such as deep pore cleanser on the whole face and neck. This helps in keeping the oily T-zone clean and clear. Follow with this twice a day to come up with better results.
  2. During summer use an antibacterial soap to control the bacterial invasion and to prevent further problems in the T-zone.
  3. The dry areas need a good moisturizer, as these are known to stimulate the water penetration into the skin or it also works to decrease the rate at which the water evaporates from the surface of the skin. If the hydration is not enough, choose those lotions having silicone oils in them. This would help you moisturize your face without any feeling of extra oiliness and it is also light to use.
  4. A toner which is free of alcohol should be used on the oily areas to prevent the shining of the central panel of the face. But make sure that you do not use it in the dry areas.
  5. Exfoliate the skin so as to get a new and fresher look. While performing it check out the oilier areas more such as the nose, chin and even the forehead. The recommended mask for a combination skin is a gel mask. Otherwise you can prefer a clay mask for the oily areas such as forehead, chin and nose and a cream mask for dry areas which includes cheeks.
  6. On oily areas always prefer oil-absorbing make up as this would surely control the shine.
  7. Depend on a sunscreen whenever you step out and use those having a minimum of 15 SPF.


Sensitive skin is seen in many of people these and it is the most fragile kind of skin type. It is easily prone to irritation like stinging, chafing and even itching.  It has to be taken special care always. After each wash the sensitive skin feels dry and itchy at places. As the day advances and by the midday there is a presence of flaky patches as well as redness seen. It is also prone to break out into spots. Those having sensitive skin will not be able to use every cosmetic available in the market. Therefore a patch test is recommended always before using any kind of cosmetic.

After knowing about the skin whether it is sensitive or not, you have to be very careful in choosing the products for your skin. Always be keen and take the right precautions. Always check out for the safest products in the outlet. Use cosmetics which are alcohol free, emulsifier free and even fragrance free skin and face care products.

Sensitive Skin Care

Never use any facial washes or soap on the face as the skin is very fragile and could lead to irritations and discomfort at times. But instead of this you can easily use light and hypo allergic cleansing lotions. A moisturizer could do the right job by making your soft and supple and also by acting as a barrier against irritants. While using the moisturizer also you have to be very careful as to use those creams which are unperfumed so that it will not result in irritating your skin.



  1. Take allergy patch test always on your inner arm every time you are tempted to buy a new product in the market. If your skin starts burning or itching within minutes of applying a product, wash it off immediately.
  2. Every six months, throw out all bacteria-collecting products like eyeliner and mascara.
  3. Never use any article where the oil and water mixture has separated or where the colors are clearly separating. Keep soothing lotions like rose water and witch hazel at hand.
  4. If you find yourself reacting to sunscreen products, try a sunscreen that is water-resistant rather than water proof, as the former contains less synthetic oils. The more your sunscreen, the better; it’s the chemical ingredients that cause sensitivity problems.
  5. While sorting out the cosmetic products always check out for hypo allergic range and keep the use of chemical-based products to a minimum.


  1. Never ever start with any cosmetic product on your face unless you are sure after the patch allergy test.
  2. Never expose your skin to radiation and do not go out under the sun without a sunscreen lotion.

With little care and caution, there is no reason why as sensitive skin cannot be as artfully made up as a normal skin. There is always a need of being aware of the sensitivity of the skin and to what products it is reacts and to which it does not. Knowing your skin more than anything else would let you make a perfect skin for yourself with mind blowing beauty and care. The allergic patch test is known to be the best tests which would help you in a long way to recognize those products which your skin loves and those which your skin hates. Thus letting you understand about it well and to study about it more deeply to create a beautiful and healthy skin that would remain the same for long.


Dehydrated skin is defined as the skin in which surface dehydration takes place. It is the problem affecting about ninety eight percent of the population. It has different problems associated in varying ways. It leads to scaly, taut, premature ageing and various symptoms.

This is taut skin with a scaly feel, revealing a lot of superficial lines and prone to premature ageing. As is obvious, this skin condition is caused by the rapid loss of water on thin surface of the skin.



The clue to surface hydration is provided by the horny layer. There are several causes of dehydration of the moisture from the skin.

  1. Poor cleansing is major reason as soap could be really harsh to the skin as it is alkaline in nature. It takes away the hydro-lipid film from the surface of the epidermis and thus the horny layer is exposed. It is unprotected and thus leads to moisture loss. Other alkaline washes which are known to cause sever problems are the foaming cleansers and alcohol solutions which are used for problem as well as oily skin. This is due to the reason that they produce closed comedones which is known as clogging. Therefore, it results in blackheads and pustules.
  2. Skin is the next cause of dehydrated skin. It might be the result of acne treatments such as retinoic acid, hexachlorophene, hydrogen peroxide and many more. Usually the skin is affected by either exposure to the sun and also the dermal tissues fail to function properly.
  3. Neglecting the skin and not giving proper care could also lead to dehydrated skin. As fluids like water is the most important nutrition for the skin. Applying moisturizers regularly also brings life to the skin.
  4. Regular usage of scrubs on the skin could lead to breaking down of the cell cohesion in different skin types. This would reduce the ability to retain moisture and it also leads to damage to the capillaries.
  5. Using astringents with alcohol could take away the sebum from the upper layers and they act as strong cleansers.
  6. Air conditioning or exposure to extreme climate could lead to loss of moisture from the skin. Hence adequate protection is very important. The skin has to be protected from both extremities of cold as well as hot.
  7. The hot showers could remove the sebum from the surface of the skin. This is because of the friction as well heat of hot water and it results in capillary damage and dehydration. While bathing in hot water, always practice to wash face with lukewarm water only.
  8. Diet plays a major role in enhancing the skin tone. Dehydration of the skin could be caused by excessive salt intake. Sodium chloride known as salt as the ability to transfer water from the cells interior to the interstitial fluids which creates bloating as well water retention simultaneously.
  9. Coffee plays a major role in dehydration.

Dehydrated Skin Care

The most important thing is to point out the cause for dehydration and take necessary steps to overcome it. There are several cosmetic products available today to treat various skin issues.

  1. Use oil in water emulsions having natural moisturizing factors known as NMF. They include glucose, amino acids or electrolytes. They play a major role in retaining the moisture on the surface of the skin. But they should not be depended upon during harsh or extreme climatic conditions.
  2. The most reliable protection is offered by the protective creams which have high lipid content. The chemical similarity is very same to that of the skin’s own surface film. Therefore, only small amount needs to be massaged in.
  3. In many situations and some skin types the humectants consisting of sorbitol or glycerin is considered to be very useful. But while using these you have to very careful as they are attracted towards moisture and at certain instances they even take away water from the lower skin layers. It is not recommended for individuals suffering already from dehydration or those who are in dry climate areas.


This skin condition is caused by a weakness in the capillary vessels and characterized by a localized reddening of the skin. Usually the capillaries expand to receive the sudden rush of blood to the skin. Later they subside and return to the normal state. On the other hand, with a weak elasticity for the capillaries, they surely would expand but do not contract and in the same way do not return to the normal state. Hence it leads to dilated capillaries which have lingering blood cells. This would make them more defined and also appear to be red on the surface of the skin. The structural change that happens during ageing could also result in couperose skin.


  1. Increased use of hot as well as cold water on the skin.
  2. Blushing
  3. Spicy foods
  4. Alcohol
  5. Cigarettes
  6. Sun
  7. Hot and spicy foods

The cause differs and includes anything that results in rushing blood to the face.

Couperose Skin Care

  1. Do not wash with extreme hot or cold water.
  2. Opt for those skin care products which results in strengthening the capillary walls.
  3. Before choosing the medication always check out the skin type as there are different products for differing skin types.


In this case, the skin looks withered, a condition caused primarily by a deficiency in nutritional components. The skin appears looser and thinner, elastic fibres degenerate due to water loss while fat tissue reduce in thickness, causing ageing and a breakdown in the skin’s elasticity. There is a dramatic reduction in oil production, thus causing dryness. To make matters worse, blood circulation is reduced due to cholesterol deposits in the arterioles.

Getting older also means that the skin also starts to get older and certain changes takes place in the skin. The skin shows drastic changed like it becomes wrinkled intensely, dry and various spots and certain growths occur. Apart from all these the healing time for the skin also takes long.

Ageing plays a major role in changing the skin texture and is also a long process. As the age increases, the estrogen levels as well as the moisture balance of the skin starts to decrease. This is the reason for the skin to loose its elasticity as well as the firmness. The circulation of blood on the surface of the skin decreases as the protecting layer of the skin known as the lipid layer becomes thinner. Then, the defense mechanism of the skin also starts subsiding slowly as the cellular renewal deteriorates.

Many of the skin changes for mature skin are unavoidable, natural and above all it is harmless. But some others prove to be painful such as skin cancers and other serious and dreadful situations. But it is also proven that most of the skin hazards for mature skin could be prevented to certain extend. There are therapies which are available for all skin type.

WRINKLES - problem of mature skin


Wrinkles appear as a result of the weakening of the collagen and elastin fibres which are the ones that keep the skin firm. It looses fat and looks loose and thinner. Therefore it is known to be less smooth and plump. As a result the skin sags and moreover the gravity plays a major role in making it sag a little more.

Causes of Wrinkles

  1. Sun is known to be the most important of all the skin damages and it the major one responsible for ageing of the skin. The intensity of wrinkles produced depends largely on the exposure of the skin to the sun in the lifetime.
  2. Cigarette smoking is yet another cause of wrinkles.
  3. Wrinkling is also known to be hereditary and also has a major effect to be played with the features of the parents.


There are several ways to prevent the formation of wrinkles caused by sun. For this very purpose effort has to be taken from the beginning which is in from the childhood itself.

  1. Always opt for sunscreen with SPF which is at least 15
  2. Stop deliberate sunbathing.
  3. Use a hat with a brim and along with other clothing to protect against sun.
  4. Always make sure not to expose yourself to the sun between 10 in the morning to three in the evening.
  5. Always remember that exposure to the sun at the teenage or as a child will have drastic effect and will show up while you are on your thirties, forties or even at fifties.

Starting now or never is the most important aspect. If you have not started protecting now, start right now as it can also show some results.


  1. Quit smoking as it has been proved to be the major cause for ageing of the skin. Hence quitting at the very point could make you even younger and safe.
  2. Well balanced diet is very important. If you include multivitamin in it, then it is considered to be the perfect one. With a healthy and balanced diet, the skin gets all that is needed by it and always repairs the skin and keeps the skin look young and healthy always. It also protects the skin from sun damage as well as other environmental damages.


Facial skin types extend to the rest of the body. It also includes the hands and feet.

  1. Hands always need extra pampering because they are prone to being in water and handling detergents. Rubbing warm oil into them at bedtime and leaving it over night is a good remedy. If you run out of body lotion, use a rich face cream on your hands. A professional manicure is essential once in a month.
  2. Elbows are known to be those areas which are blackened soon due to constant friction. There are different home remedies to decrease this effect.
  3. The best home remedy is to cut a lemon into half and press an elbow into each half for about ten to fifteen minutes once in a day. This will act as natural bleach and noticeably lighten the skin.
  4. The scrubbing done with chick pea flour or oats mixture helps in removing the dry skin and even keeps the area soft and smooth.
  5. Another effective home remedy is a paste of gram flour, cucumber juice, freshly grated potato juice and curds applied to the area. This also works as instant natural bleach.
  6. It is also essential to keep the area soft with moisturizer during the day and a thick cream at night.
  7. The clinical cure for a really blackened elbow is the glycolic acid peel, where the outer layers of the skin are burnt with acid and peeled off, leaving fresh new skin in its place.
  8. Feet are the most important area which is to be kept clean always. A professional pedicure is a must once in a month. In the interim period, a weekly soap-water soak at home is a good idea. Mix little soapy detergent in a tub of warm water. Add salt to it for a soothing effect on your feet, and also add few drops of oil for the moisturizing effect. Soak your feet in the solution as long as possible. The oil is an important counterbalance since the soap detergent will remove a lot of moisture from the skin. Use a pumice stone to remove dry skin around the soles. Always keep toenails clipped short.


The skin type always changes along with the weather change, age or even the climate. This also tells that you have to adjust yourself to make thing in a much better way. This would let you to switch onto lighter moisturizer or a gel cleanser in summer, or use richer, creamier products in winter, in an arid climate or even after a long flight. Many women experience adult acne in their twenties and early thirties and find themselves scanning labels for pore-scouring ingredients they haven’t used since their early teens. As you get older, especially after menopause, the sebaceous glands known as the oil-producing glands produce less, so typically dry skin becomes even drier. That’s the time to add denser, more emollient creams, fortified with anti-ageing ingredients, to your arsenal. By paying attention to any shifts and adjusting your regimens accordingly, you can make sure your skin consistently looks and feels its best.


For everyone the most important thing which is considered to be a boon is a flawless skin. But it is not available to all as there are several problems which are faced by all skin types. There are several troubles of the skin which includes freckles, pigmentation, ageing, stretch marks, birthmarks and many more.

Freckles are a genetic problem, not so common in India, but still to be found in some people. Freckles usually increase with exposure to sunlight, so as a sunscreen with a high SPF is a must. However freckles that are aggravated by sudden excessive exposure to sun, like a holiday on the beach, usually lighten on its own. Freckles are also likely to increase during your period and if you are under great stress.

Clinical treatments could lighten freckles but will not remove them completely. Some of the really big ones may be removed by electro-cauterization where the top layers of the freckle are burnt and allowed to become a scab which falls off. The use of de-pigmenting creams and strong sun blocks is the best method of dealing with freckles.

Pigmentation of skin is caused by hormonal changes in the body. These often occur during pregnancy. Seventy percent of pigmentation that happens during pregnancy goes away on its own. The thirty percent that remains, remains stubbornly. It can be controlled, but not eliminated completely.

Ageing is yet another cause for pigmentation, especially during the pre-menopausal changes in the body. There are various de-pigmenting creams such as hydroquinone, two to four percent containing creams which many of them prefer. It is just because they help to lighten the patches for a while. However, this is only superficial.

The clinical method of combating pigmentation marks is the deep chemical peel. The glycolic acid peel which is formulated from extracts of sugar cane. This is the most preferable which is known to be the non-chemical based, it is the most natural, safe and comfortable. This acid peels off several top layers of the marks and gives some relief. The hitch is that you have to studiously take a lot of care to protect your skin against sunlight after this peel. Exposure to sunlight can hurt the sensitive new skin and make it darker. It usually takes about three months for the treated skin to heal completely.

Stretch marks are known to be another skin problem faced by all people especially after delivery. But the simple plain truth that people do not want to accept is that stretch marks have no cure. Post natal marks could be snipped off by a plastic surgeon, but glycolic acid peels, retinoic acid peels; even laser treatments are all useless. Once the elastic fibres snap, nothing can be done.

Yet there is a roundabout way that involves camouflage. The skin surrounding the stretch marks can be lightened by a skin lightening treatment, so that the white streaks are lessened and the marks don’t show.

Birthmarks are those which could be removed by laser treatment. Wrinkles are known to be alpha hydroxyl acid (AHA) creams. This helps to control wrinkles to a larger extent. Ageing causes skin to thin, creating wrinkles, so these creams work by thickening the epidermis. They also regenerate the collagen or the supportive tissues, thus making the skin look younger and suppler.

The retinoic acid peel is also used for wrinkles, where the peeling action reduces the depth of wrinkles and the lines become shallower and less visible.


Stress is the most important thing that creates skin problems. Just as it affects every other system in the body go awry, it affects the skin too. It is in the form of disturbed glandular balance.

The truth is that everything you do under the effect of stress shows up on your skin. If you sleep badly, dark circles or bags come up under the eyes. If you eat badly, dark circles or bags come up under the eyes. If you eat badly, it shows up in the form of pale, unhealthy skin which loses its translucence. In the oily skin type, it causes even more damage because stress activates the hormones which stimulate the oil glands. Thus more oil than usual gushes out of the wide open pores, leading to an outbreak of pimples. Haven’t you noticed how adolescents suffer from more acne during exams?

Eczema is clearly a stress-related skin disease where stress automatically makes the patches itch. The best way to combat the effects of stress on the skin is to exercise and also make it a regular one as a routine. It could be in any form such as yoga, aerobics or walking. This increases circulation, sends more oxygen and nourishment to the skin, flushes out toxins and keeps the skin looking healthy.

The second way is to stick to a low-fat diet. Experiments have proven that chocolates are only temporary mood elevators and they will surely spoil your skin in the long run. So rid yourself of the myth that chocolates relieve stress, immediately!


One of the best known, popular and latest trends in the treatment of various skin problems are said to be laser skin rejuvenation. It has been introduced since 30 years from now. But in the field of dermatology it has been functional only for over last three to four years.

Laser technology works on the theory of light amplification for the stimulated emission of radiation. In layman’s terms, it means that light energy is converted to heat in order to do superficial surgery on the skin. About seventy to seventy five percent of the skin cells consist of water. The laser light is used to rapidly heat this water to above 100 degree Celsius, so that it is converted into steam. This steam then expands and explodes, thus bursting the cell walls and ablating the superficial layers of the skin. It is known to be the painless, non-bloody way of removing several layers of the skin and resurfacing and tightening it. It is used for various purposes such as:

  1. Fine or coarse wrinkles of the skin, usually on the face.
  2. Uneven skin surface as a result of scarring acne, pimple marks, surgical scars, small pox marks or small skin growths like moles.
  3. Age spots and photo-damaged skin blemishes.
  4. Birthmarks
  5. Pigmentation
  6. Warts and
  7. Tattoos.

A patch test is always done before performing a full laser skin resurfacing to ascertain risks of hyper pigmentation or scarring.


After establishing basic cleansing and moisturizing routine, supplement it with one or more of various things needed. The most important are the exfoliation or exfoliates. Exfoliation isn’t as elemental as cleansing and moisturizing, but it should still be an integral part of any skin-care routine. This is because every three to four weeks, new skin cells push their way from the lowest level of the epidermis which is the topmost layer of the skin to the surface. Once there, they dry and fall off, revealing plumper, fresher cells beneath them. Exfoliating speeds up the sloughing process by scrubbing of the top skin. As a result, skin is smoother and more radiant and skin care ingredients penetrate more easily. Exfoliates can be either physical or chemical. Physical ones are creams or gels containing rounded synthetic, polyethylene beads. Chemical ones include a variety of enzymes, fruits acids and retinoid which are the vitamin A derivative. Dermatologists recommend exfoliating a few times a week. The more oily your skin, the more often you should do it.

The next thing which is important is the toner. Many of us grew up dutifully toning our skin every morning and night. But today, most dermatologists agree that the toner isn’t necessary. It main purpose is to remove all traces of makeup and residual cleanser, but a high-quality cleanser, even a creamy one, should rinse off easily with water alone. Some women like the fact that toner leaves their face tight and smooth. But that taut, tingly sensation actually indicates dryness-especially if your toner contains astringents such as alcohol or witch hazel. The ideal candidate for toner is someone with oily or acne prone skin who enjoys that squeaky-clean feeling, and who can actually benefit from newer, more treatment-oriented formulations. Make sure to use an oil-free version that contains acne-fighting ingredients like salicylic acid, as well as hydrating ingredients like aloe and glycerin. Of it leaves the skin uncomfortably tight, use it every other day.

The cleansing cloths and pillows are very important for the skin care. The newest category of facial cleansers is a boon for “germa-phobes” and frequent travelers. Cleansing cloths and pillows have built-in cleansers so they lather up when they get wet, and you toss them after one use so they never get contaminated with bacteria. Even better, some cloths are pre-moistened so you don’t even need water to wash your face. They scrub skin like a wash cloth, and some have a rougher side for exfoliating. But the most important thing is that the cleansing cloth as well as pillows is incredibly convenient. They eliminate the need to open a bottle or hunt for a wash cloth tasks that sound effortless but actually feel like a chore after a later night out or in a cramped airplane bathroom.

Skin is the most important of all and should be taken care always. Caring the skin from childhood itself shows up a lot of difference as the age increases. The daily skin care routine of the individual should consist of eye-contour cream, moisturizer, cleansers, exfoliates, night creams and all those which is very important for making you look younger and healthy. This would really mean to be something great when you grow older as proper care to the skin would result in better skin when you are old.

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